John Campbell

Africa in Transition

Campbell tracks political and security developments across sub-Saharan Africa.

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Technology, Social Media, and Nigeria’s Elections

by John Campbell
July 6, 2011

An official of MTN, a mobile telecommunications company, registers a SIM card as he attends to customers at a makeshift SIM card registration centre in Nigeria's capital Abuja August 3, 2010. (Afolabi Sotunde/Courtesy Reuters)

Judith Asuni of Academic Associates Peaceworks and Jacqueline Farris of the Shehu Musa Yar’Adua Foundation have recently released a comprehensive report, “Tracking Social Media: the Social Media Tracking Centre and the 2011 Nigerian Election” (PDF), where they attempt to evaluate the impact of social media and information communication technologies such as mobile phones, SMS, Facebook, and Twitter on Nigeria’s recent elections.

Although the April polls were the first to include widely available social media, Nigeria now holds the continent’s record for most tracked reports of social media use during an election, with nearly half a million examples cataloged by the proprietary software at the Social Media Tracking Centre. On the day of the presidential election alone, the centre collected over one hundred and thirty thousand tweets and public Facebook posts. Though Nigeria is sub-Saharan Africa’s most populous country, for technologies so new this is an accomplishment, and it underscores Nigeria’s leadership in the use social media on the continent.

Asuni and Farris acknowledge the difficulty of determining if social media actually altered the outcome of elections. They do point to some anecdotal evidence: in one instance, a ‘citizen observer’ tweeted about possible election rigging in Imo state, which motivated trained observers to investigate and then caused a relative flurry of online discussion, possibly contributing to the defeat of the candidate accused of rigging.

Conversely, their report also includes an SMS message that is intended to motivate sectarian hatred and “may have contributed to the killings of as many as four hundred Muslims in southern Kaduna.” This has happened in the past in Jos, which Asch Harwood and I wrote about last year.

At a broader level, there clearly has been a transformation with respect to how Nigerians participate in elections. The authors point to increased participation of young voters, the improved ability of traditional media houses and citizen observers to disseminate information quickly, the heightened linkages among Nigerians who might never interact as well as with INEC and civil society, and the capability to measure the volume and content of communication. Nevertheless, the electoral outcome was significantly determined by the people who have always run Nigeria. Should these developments continue, they could have a significant and positive impact on the development of democratic institutions.

My research associate, Asch Harwood, has also attempted to grapple with some of these issues here and here.

Read the whole report here.

Post a Comment 2 Comments

  • Posted by Folusho Dolire

    The GSM/ICT revolution has brought some reprieve not only to the Nigerian people but also to the Federal Government in the areas of information dissemination, crime control and some shreds of economic benefit to the people. The April general elections are a confirmation that the information technology thing is capable of changing our business pattern. The draw back is that these things are not being manufactured in the country; so, anything, not matter how poorly regulated can be imported into the country. Asuni and Farris are right.

  • Posted by Ekenyerengozi Michael Chima

    Since the popularity of social media in the nomination and election of President Barack Obama, the power of social media has been proved and also effective in the Tunisian revolution.
    See “Tweeting Out a Tyrant:” Social Media and the Tunisian Revolution by Mariam Esseghaier

    With over 67 million Nigerians on the internet and more than 127 million users of GSM phones, social media will play an influential part in dictating public opinion on Nigerian politics and politicians and should influence the 2015 elections, because the youths who are the most active users of social media are the largest voting bloc. But with majority of the youths unemployed, they will be willing pawns of the desperate political contestants who are ready to pay for their votes and in fact are already recruiting many jobless youths as “internet warriors” as reported in the international news media on the BBC and CBC.
    Letter from Africa: Nigeria’s internet warriors
    Internet warriors: Fight for political sway in Nigeria goes digital

    Some internet warriors of the ruling People’s Democratic Party (PDP) are earning as much as N100, 000 – N250, 000 monthly per person to attack and malign Gen. Muhammadu Buhari (retd), the presidential candidate of the opposing All Progressives Congress (APC) on Facebook, Twitter and popular Nigerian newspapers’ websites like The Punch and Vanguard.

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