John Campbell

Africa in Transition

Campbell tracks political and security developments across sub-Saharan Africa.

Print Print Cite Cite
Style: MLA APA Chicago Close


Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons in Northern Nigeria

by John Campbell
March 18, 2014

Families from Gwoza, Borno State, displaced by the violence and unrest caused by the insurgency, are pictured at a refugee camp in Mararaba Madagali, Adamawa State, February 18, 2014. (Stringer/Courtesy Reuters)


The ongoing insurgency in northern Nigeria, called “Boko Haram,” and the government’s often brutal attempts to suppress it, have produced a tide of refugees and internally displaced in one of the world’s poorest regions. With the “fog of war,” government restrictions on news agencies, and a poor communications infrastructure, it is difficult to survey needs with precision.

IRIN published yesterday that an estimated 350,000 people have been displaced since 2013. Of that number, 290,000 are internally displaced and the rest have fled to Cameroon, Chad, and Niger. The UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has a higher estimate of internally displaced persons, at 470,000. Local Nigerian officials are telling me that the real number is dramatically higher than these estimates; in Bauchi, according to one official, internally displaced persons number more than a million. They come, he said, from the ethnic conflict in Plateau state as well as from further north where “Boko Haram” is active.

According to IRIN, there are no official camps for the internally displaced. They shelter with family and friends where they can find them. That reality also disguises how large the internally displaced numbers are likely to be.

The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) reports that there are perhaps a dozen international non-governmental organizations still operating in northeast Nigeria, but only the Norwegian Red Cross, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), and the UN Population Fund are working with the displaced. In addition, two agencies of the Nigerian government are also involved, the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) and the State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA). The pervasive insecurity throughout the region precludes a greater humanitarian effort, both by Nigeria and international organizations.

The displacement of farmers means that land is not being cultivated for the growing season. NEMA estimates that more than 60 percent of the farmers in the food basket near Lake Chad have fled. Accordingly, there are concerns about food security. There are reports of villagers now eating their seed corn, having shared what they had stored with the displaced.

To forestall an even greater humanitarian disaster in a region that even in the best of times is extremely poor requires greater involvement by international organizations, perhaps supported by governments. It is to be hoped that the African Union and the Economic Community of West African States might step up to the plate to lead the delivery of humanitarian assistance, even if a multinational force is required.

Post a Comment 4 Comments

  • Posted by Rebecca

    If there are no official IDP camps , how do you estimate the numbers when the displaced are living with friends and love ones. Is the UNHCR and other agencies working in Nigeria as in other countries. Why don,t we set up a system to get a data on the IDPs for plan program’s. And so how are the UN agencies coordinating their humanitarian efforts. Things could get bad.

  • Posted by Lucy Usen

    The IDPs estimated number should reflect gender disaggregated data and the number of children.

  • Posted by Akinyemi David

    This is a revealing piece, but it doesn’t totally open my eyes to the state of IDPs across Nigeria’s Northeast. My NGO is concerned about this person(s) and we are looking at mobilizing to come to the North. I’d like to know if there are no camps around the north at all for the IDPs, and if there is, I’d like to know the statistics and their specific locations. Pls help.

  • Posted by Amina

    Who is responsible for the protection of internally displaced persons?

Post a Comment

CFR seeks to foster civil and informed discussion of foreign policy issues. Opinions expressed on CFR blogs are solely those of the author or commenter, not of CFR, which takes no institutional positions. All comments must abide by CFR's guidelines and will be moderated prior to posting.

* Required