Only a few days ago, so it seems, it took about $1.25 to buy a euro. Now it takes closer to $1.45 (it was more earlier today, but the dollar subsequently rallied). And — as Macro Man notes — the dollar’s move pales relative to the recent slide in the pound. Not so long ago a pound bought 1.5 euros. Now it buys a euro and change. The Anglo-Saxon currencies haven’t had a good two week run.
Both the US and the UK had housing and finance centric economies. Both have significant external deficits. And both are inclined to use monetary and fiscal policy aggressively to combat a downturn.
But with global trade collapsing, the euro’s rise can not be all that comfortable for members of the eurozone. It isn’t clear that any one wants a stronger currency right now. Currencies though are relative prices — and can go up or down amid a global contraction. In theory, everyone could ease monetary policy equally without changing the relative value of any currencies. In practice things rarely work out as neatly.
Dr. Krugman, I would assume, hopes that the euro’s rise puts more pressure on Germany to join a coordinated European fiscal stimulus — with good reason. Germany’s export machine relies on global and European demand. That demand is falling (watch Russian imports for example). And if the euro’s rally is sustained, Germany will soon face an additional headwind. So too will the less competitive members of the eurozone. They are in an even more difficult position if Germany doesn’t lead a coordinated European reflation.
Four other thoughts:
1) Until fairly recently, all the European currencies tended to move in tandem against the dollar. That meant their cross-rates were stable. And it meant that the euro wasn’t as strong as it seemed. The euro was strong against the dollar and the yen, but not against the pound, the Swedish krona, the Norwegian krona and similar currencies. Right now the euro is rising against all the smaller European currencies — not just against the dollar.
2) Japan is starting too worry about yen strength, not surprising. Renewed intervention seems like a possibility if the yen continues to rise. That shouldn’t be a surprise. Japan tends to intervene heavily when the interest different between the yen and dollar goes away, reducing private market demand for dollars.
3) China has to be pleased by the euro’s rally. Dollar strength translated into RMB strength — and a rising RMB when Chinese exports were slowing (and likely now falling) made Chinese policy makers uncomfortable. There was even talk of moving to a real basket peg — which would have meant that RMB would depreciate against the dollar when the dollar was strong. But I rather doubt that China now wants to appreciate against the dollar to offset the dollar’s renewed weakness against the euro. Right now China is happy to see the dollar and thus the RMB weaken …
4) Central banks have been big buyers of the pound over the past few years. Reserves were growing, and the pound’s share was rising. Central banks liked its yield — and the fact that it an easy alternative to both the dollar and the euro. By my count, central bank inflows often were large enough to cover the UK’s current account deficit. Central banks reserves are shooting up, but if they “rebalance” their portfolios they should be big buyers of pounds now — as they need to hold more pounds to keep the pound’s share of their portfolio up as the pound’s value slides.
I’ll be interested to see if they do so — or if they start to view the pound as Europe’s equivalent of an Agency bond …